God as Otherwise than Being: Toward a Semantics of the Gift (SPEP)
The context from which the English quote is taken makes it clear that the Old Mariner belongs to Life-in-Death, having kept his bodily form, however decrepit it may be.
The context from which the Italian quote is extracted is about a gentleman, Branca Doria, who killed his guest, namely his brother-in-law. As a punishment, his soul was precipitated into a huge cistern, Tolomea. At first sight, both characters share the same plight: they have violated the rules of hospitality and their bodies have been divided from their souls.
However, many differences have been exploited by Levi. The former speaks and even holds his listeners under a spell; by contrast, the latter cannot speak. As Rastier concludes, the witness is allowed to speak, whereas the survivor cannot : he is only apparently alive. In spite of their recontextualization, the original hypotexts are needed to establish the possible identification or differentiation.
In other words, both Coleridge and Levi are brothers in rivalry, with Dante as the founding father.
1. Relying on an automatic return to church
Paradoxically, the founding father is not as explicitly designated as the rival. Textual semantics finds no fault with the intuitive idea that texts contain qualitatively unequal passages. In other words, some passages are more important than others in that they are nodal places where semantic relationships achieve a higher degree of complexity and where semantic backgrounds and forms 23 are affected by important transformations.
Passages do not provide us with a magical formula giving access to the meaning of the whole text. On the contrary, they are determined by the global level and are related to — contrasted to — other places in the same text. But on the contrary, it can be defined as a place where global meaning is reshaped, or where new global meaning is imparted to the text. The choice itself has to be justified. Moreover, as a passage is first of all a nodal point interlacing other places in the same text, it is necessarily immersed in a context from which it is never isolated.
Thus, the definition of the passage pertains to semantic relations within context. Regularity of those semantic formations is immediately visible but variations are certainly more striking.
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Variations can be found in beginnings or endings, thematic, narrative and enunciative turning points, above and below blanks, within embedded enclaves, or in the relationships between framed and framing text, etc. Sudden death is perceived as a brutal event by the actors whereas it is described as the outcome of lurking disease, brewing and poisoning, by the represented enunciator.
Southern society is undermined by rampant poverty and racial discrimination. Our hearts grow empty and lose strength for our purpose. Our gifts are trampled in the mud and made useless. What is found in the Southern town is echoed worldwide. Therefore, themes can be interpreted as narrative prefigurations. In Part One the rhythm is rather slow as it is based on repetition of a given design, that of four human actors repeatedly visiting another, Singer.
Textual Semantics and Literature: Corpus, Texts, Translation
But in Part Two one fictive year from July to July is covered by 15 sections compared with two months from Spring to July covered by 6 sections in the previous part. Then a one-month ellipsis suggests the chaos left by this unexpected death. Finally in Part Three pace is slow again, even slower than in Part One, as a single day is covered from morning to evening by four sections.
In other words, even rhythm has receded after the climax of the crisis. This quest object is conjugal and family love for Biff THLH 25, ; glory for Mick 34, ; brotherhood and determination for Copeland 71, , , , , ; and working-class solidarity for Blount , , Blount seeks to arouse a desire for revolutionary change in the working poor. All quests, however, are doomed to failure.
The heroic gift of oneself is never recognized by those it is offered to. After Jesus has looked for disciples, disciples tell Jesus that people have been looking for Him:. And Simon and they that were with Him followed after Him.
Are religious people really less smart, on average, than atheists?
He is characterized by asceticism. This is how heroism is replaced by mysticism. Forms can be defined as clusters of specific traits, to which can be added generic ones and roles.
Throughout the story, traits can be kept, dropped and acquired. Transformations can concern themes, narrative, represented enunciations, and succession. Thus, focalization varies from one section to another but remains relatively stable within each section. It is the section devoted to his dream, which announces his suicide in II Consequently II 15 appears as surplus, as if the character were doomed to disappear in spite of his centripetal force. As will be seen in the next subpart, the dream is given paramount significance.
We have said that heroism is gradually replaced by mysticism. Whoever the sender may be, the addressee fails to respond. Wild frustrated Blount is mesmerized by the deaf mute. Furious Copeland is calmed down. Mick compares God to Singer, not the other way round, because the former is like the latter, silent. Biff is the one who reads into these mystic relationships.
However, the mystic background results from a form which grows into an embedded vignette, the dream. The intuition is supported by the interpretation of the contents.
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The dream describes a pyramid of steps on which all the actors kneel, with Antonapoulos at the top, Singer the dreamer half-way, the other four on the ground and behind them crowds of kneeling people. Each one is looking upward toward the one above and turning his back to those below. But idols do not belong to this world — they are silent and turn their backs. This big bang is also announced in the dream which ends on a ferment lifting the steps and collapsing them. And results will not be improved until the activity has been also.
Textual semantics is also interested in translating in so far as what is translated is not a chain of words but meaning. Consequently, in translating, changing signifiers amounts to changing signs, thus signifieds.
2. Appealing to people out of guilt or obligation
Since each language produces its own network of signs, there is no direct, systematic equivalence between the signs of two different languages. To put it bluntly, what we do in translation is translating a context, or creating semantic backgrounds and forms, in another language.
On the contrary, it compels us to add ethical requirements to aesthetic ones. Indeed textual semantics can help us think that what is translated is not a language but a text. And a text can be defined as the semiotic product of the interaction between three linguistic systems: that of a given language, with its general rules; that of social norms, including discursive and generic ones; and that of the individual project, namely style. In other words, a text is a semiotic system interlacing dialect, sociolect and idiolect. As a result, translating a text involves a complex system which engages more than just cultural parameters such as two languages but also the generic corpora of both source text and target text.
Usually, the only possible equivalent is thought to be informal, colloquial language. As dialect is not necessarily colloquial, the result is not always convincing. The units actualized or virtualized when reading, interpreting and translating are the signifieds of morphemes, called semes. Translating often amounts to losing or gaining semes under- or over-translating. Both loss and gain can be compensated for by acting on the context. The lost trait can be actualized above or below. The surplus trait can be dropped.
In a novel by Caryll Philips, Crossing the River , a colored character named Martha tries to cross the US continent from Kansas to California to escape the injustices of being a slave.